seqibad {TraMineR} | R Documentation |

## Badness index

### Description

Badness index of each sequence, i.e. the sum of undesirableness of each state weighted by the potential to integrate that state in the sequence.

### Usage

```
seqibad(seqdata, pow=1, with.missing=FALSE, ...)
```

### Arguments

`seqdata` |
a state sequence object ( |

`pow` |
real. Exponent applied to the position in the sequence. Higher value increase the importance of recency (see |

`with.missing` |
logical: should non-void missing values be treated as a regular state? If |

`...` |
arguments such as |

### Details

For each sequence, the badness is the sum of the undesirableness of each state weighted by the potential to integrate the state. As long as `pow`

is strictly greater than zero, the undesirableness of states occurring at the end of the sequence get higher weights than those at the beginning. The index reaches its maximum 1 for a sequence made of a single spell in the worst state and the minimum 0 for a sequence made of a single spell is the most favorable state.

### Value

A vector with the badness index for each sequence.

### Author(s)

Gilbert Ritschard

### References

Ritschard, G. (2023), "Measuring the nature of individual sequences", *Sociological Methods and Research*, 52(4), 2016-2049. doi:10.1177/00491241211036156.

### See Also

`seqintegr`

, `seqidegrad`

, `seqprecarity`

### Examples

```
data(ex1)
sx <- seqdef(ex1[,1:13], right="DEL")
seqibad(sx) ## using original alphabet order
seqibad(sx, stprec=c(1,2,3,6)) ## user defined undesirableness values
seqibad(sx, with.missing=TRUE, state.order=c('A','B','C','D'))
```

*TraMineR*version 2.2-10 Index]